FLAT2D: Fast Localization from Approximate Transformation into 2D

Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2016

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Many autonomous vehicles require precise localization into a prior map in order to support planning and to leverage semantic information within those maps (e.g. that the right lane is a turn-only lane.) A popular approach in automotive systems is to use infrared intensity maps of the ground surface to localize, making them susceptible to failures when the surface is obscured by snow or when the road is repainted. An emerging alternative is to localize based on the 3D structure around the vehicle; these methods are robust to these types of changes, but the maps are costly both in terms of storage and the computational cost of matching. In this paper, we propose a fast method for localizing based on 3D structure around the vehicle using a 2D representation. This representation retains many of the advantages of ``full''matching in 3D, but comes with dramatically lower space and computational requirements. We also introduce a variation of Graph-SLAM tailored to support localization, allowing us to make use of graph-based error-recovery techniques in our localization estimate. Finally, we present real-world localization results for both an indoor mobile robotic platform and an autonomous golf cart, demonstrating that autonomous vehicles do not need full 3D matching to accurately localize in the environment.


    TITLE      = {{FLAT2D}: Fast Localization from Approximate Transformation into
    AUTHOR     = {Robert Goeddel and Carl Kershaw and Jacopo Serafin and Edwin Olson},
    BOOKTITLE  = {Proceedings of the {IEEE/RSJ} International Conference on Intelligent
                 Robots and Systems {(IROS)}},
    YEAR       = {2016},
    MONTH      = {October},
    KEYWORDS   = {Localization, Velodyne},